Thesis on Clients Behavior Health Awareness and Social Problems of Sex Workers

Prostitution now a days is found very common phenomena in Bangladesh as well as in the whole world. The increasing ratio of this sector seems to be geometric one. As the ratio is increasing, the problems of the prostitute like heinous behave, attack of disease and illiteracy increases their problems in various times as well. As they are increasing in number it is now much more essential to study more about the vulnerable sex worker passing their days in some major threaten in Bangladesh as well as the World’s perspectives. One of the first steps towards understanding the forces that underlie prostitution is to determine factors that differentiate men who patronize prostitutes from those who do not. Systematic research on this topic has involved three basic approaches:
· Comparing convenience samples of clients with the general population.
. Comparing clients of prostitute women who attend educational programmers to discourage patronizing subsequent to their arrest or conviction for prostitution with men in the general population.
· Comparing clients who admit patronizing in surveys to those who do not (“John Schools”), each approach involves significant methodological problems that threaten the validity of results obtained from it.

Comparisons involving no probability samples of clients (Freund 1991), while useful for preliminary investigation, do not allow conclusions about clients’ distinguishing characteristics to be made with confidence. Although clients arrested for patronizing seem to be representative of clients of street prostitutes overall (Brewer et al. 2006, Brewer et al. in press), comparisons involving john school attendees (Kennedy et al. 2004, Montosss and McRee 2005) suffer from biased samples of arrested clients.

In principle, comparisons of self-reported clients and non-clients in probability sample surveys (Brewer et al. 2000, Cameron and Collins 2003, Rissel et al. 2003, Ward et al. 2005) circumvent these problems. However, men substantially underreport patronizing in surveys (Turner et al. 1998, Des Jarlais et al. 1999, Brewer et al. 2000, Lau 2000, Lau et al. 2003, Rogers et al. 2005, van Griensven et al. 2006), and it is unknown whether client characteristics moderate reporting of patronizing behavior. Also, comparisons in which clients are defined as men who have ever patronized in their lifetimes (Sullivan and Simon 1998, Monto and McRee 2005, Træen et al. 2005) risk conflating cohort effects for correlates of patronizing. Such comparisons may also mistakenly identify time-varying characteristics (e.g., education, marital status, etc.) as correlates even though those characteristics may have changed between the time clients last patronized and the time they were interviewed.

We also compare self-reported clients in a national probability sample survey with other men, and relate arrested and self-reported clients’ distinguishing characteristics to survey data on sexual behavior. Furthermore, using data from Colorado Springs, we compare the characteristics of clients of street prostitutes to those clients who patronized prostitutes only in off-street settings.
Across data sets, 97-100% of arrests had geo codable arrestee residential addresses and most arrested clients were local residents of the counties studied (55-85%).

Sex work(SW) or prostitution in subcontinent and over all south Asia, like China, India and Bangladesh has been recorded since 650 BC(Miller,2004) and it has been the subject to moral and political debate since then. However, in modern era this debate has expanded to the risk of public health. At the beginning of AIDS epidemic, significant public health concern have gone to sex workers(SWs) as vector of human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) and sexually transmitted infections(STIs) because they are the most vulnerable group of people for HIV and other STIs (Pitts et ai.,2004 Vuyisteke & Jana,2001). I these countries, SWs have a high rate of client per week. It is evident that condom use in time of sex work more than 50 percent. This situation is pussing the SWs and their clients at risk at first phase and in general population who are linked with clients of SWs (Family Health International (FHI), 2001).

As this work is aimed to unveil the neither major three conditions to the neither sex worker a definite area nor locality, then firstly this should be recognized as the problems of the sex workers of the definite brothel. Sex workers are now available all over the country. Some are brothel based and some are found as floating prostitution. Phultala, a upozila of khulna district having a medium level of brothel. In this brothel sex workers are facing multiple problems like rude behavior, ill payment, threat of HIV and various STDs like syphilis, gonorrhea, and so on. Moreover there are often chances to be abused by the people outside of the brothel. Apparently it seems that it is a problem of definitely a local level problem but its ultimate results are not to be recognized at local, a national problem. A client when visits the brothels have a definite chance to carry HIV or other STDs from the sex worker he commits. His definite clients have a chance to visit other brothel of the other region of the country and other Women with whom he will commit sexual intercourse. So there is a definite chance to spread at national level. And by the same way it can spread multinationaly if a foreigner commits sex with any sex worker who is having HIV and STDs.

In each and every research, rationale and importance of the study is considered with much carefully. Because every study aims at the less consumption of time, labour and finance. A research topic should be fruitful for the society and academic work if needed. In this topic prostitution and the social and physiological problems of the sex workers have been selected because their problems are need to unveil to make the possible recovery and understanding their problem thoroughly in academically analysis. Moreover, there are some other things to be measured. Those are:
® Sex workers immediately named as potential careers of a fatal, sexually transmitted disease. It was clear that sex workers and possibly their clients, would be vulnerable.
® Sex workers may be asked by their customers to engage in sex without condoms. Sex workers are often thought to leave the initiative and decision making about sexual matter to men.
® Client’s rude behavior enforces them in less participation in sexual activity.
® Sex workers are on the marginal level of the health awareness. They are not always care about the health problems which makes them more sufferers.
® In our country sex workers are not always considered moderately or normally outside of the brothel as our society enjoys the benefits of having less deviant behavior in society.
® Economy controls their position in brothel as there aere the presence of inequality. By this study this problem can be measured carefully and take some necessary initiatives in local or national level if necessary.
Prostitution is unique & ubiquitous as old as man & yet modern. Sex worker the demand for all over the world goes on increasing day by day. A large number of studies have been conducted on prostitution but majority of them want to history & diseases only. So less study is found about the socio physiological effect client’s behavior, health ignorance and social problems of sex workers.

The significant point of the study is that it aims to find out the effect of clients rude behave on sex workers and its effects on them as well as overall environment of the selected area. If this study published in any place it may help people to make understand about the consequence of Social and physical stress on sex workers of Phultala brothel as well as all the sex workers of different brothel. Moreover by this study the common people or learners will be able to know the actual pathetic scenario of sufferings of the sex workers. The miseries which faces by the sex workers by having the low literacy level. The learners will be able to make their view clear about how they are treated actually in society, even by the customers with whom they commits sexual intercourse as their livelihood.

Operational Definitions

Sex Worker/ Prostitutes:
A woman who takes sex as her occupation. A female who sells sex for her living is commonly called Potiat ,Beshya, Gonika, Bazerer Meye in standard Bengali and Khanki, Magi and Noti in slang Bengali language. The terms are abusive, literally these terms mean a fallen woman, a woman whose sexual service are many men, a woman who belongs to the market, her body being a commodity (Tahmina and Moral, 2004) Prostitution may be defined as that segment of the female population which is engaged under duress or voluntarily legally or illegally in sexual acts for materials gains.

The Everyman’s Encyclopedia defines prostitution or sex working as offering of the human body commonly for the purpose of intercourse or sexual gratification in return for payment or reward ( Girling, b1978:62). Prostitution that refers to the sexual exploitation for remuneration in cash or kind, usually but not always organized by an intermediary (Ennew, 1996).
Prostitution, a transaction in which sexual services are provided in exchange for money or monetary value provided to the sex worker or another party, is essentially a social phenomenon and associated with economic, cultural, moral, behavioral and legal factors. It is often forgotten that large number of men and children are also involved in commercial sex. It is dynamic and adaptive, requiring the interpersonal interaction of at least two people: a sex worker whom is the provider and client, who is the buyer of sexual services (Step Promoting Gender Equality Human Right and Good Governance, May, 2004).

Sex workers, in Bengali terminology, called Beshsha, Khanki, Patita, Deho babshaee, Ghukshi, Dui number mohila, Belella, Jouna karmi, Jouna babshaee, Promod bala, Barangana, Barbonita, Dehaposharini, Ganika, Dehopojini, Bazerer meye, Nosto meye etc. Although they are known in many ways in English, such as sex worker, sex trader, flesh trader, fallen woman, public woman, prostitute, whore, harlot, courtesan, strumpet, call-girl, street girl, social handicapped women, and troll (Ullah and Rahman, 2000:35).

Client refers the person who usually takes the access in brothel to meet up his physical demand. Clients are who commits sexual intercourse with the sex worker and pay them for their job. In Bengali clients are pronounced as Khodder. In English client are also known as customer. There are other kinds of clients called Babu who are the permanent customer. Most of the time those Babu are from aristocrat or reach portion of the society.So the two kinds of customers are:
Khodder – The common client.
· Babu – The permanent customer of the sex worker usually rich and aristocrat.
Condom used properly and consistently in one of the leading methods of protection against HIV infection.Condom use as an effective means of protection against HIV/ AIDS has been promoted in every parts of the world.(Step:2004).

The concept of attitude has provoked much consideration and investigation, both by and psychologist and sociologists, as it incorporates individual and social aspects. Psychologists emphasized the conditions under which an individual develops attitudes and integrates them as part of personality. Social psychologists are particularly interested in the way attitudes function within a social setting. Sociologists associate social behaviors with particular social structures and situations.
The activity which approved by the society refers the social or social phenomena. What peoples do in society is social. All behaviors, activities, customs, norms and values, in a word our culture is considered as social because those are approved by the people and the society. So a phenomenon will be social when its recognition comes from the society.

‘HIV’ stands for “Human Immunodeficiency Virus”. It is a number of the ‘Retroviridae’ family. In 1980, the description of the virus was first noticed. Therefore, for sometime though it is called and accepted as ’HIV’. This virus destroys the immune system of human body i.e. the body’s defense states by entering into the ‘T-helper cells’ and thus permanently incapacitating body’s total functional ability(Ahmed, Kabir Uddin, 1997:26). The HIV is found in the blood, semen, vaginal secretion, saliva, tear, urine and brest milk of an infant person. But due to the presence of a very small amount of HIV, AIDS cannot be transmitted through the tears, urine, or saliva, according to the opinion of specialists (Ahmed, Kabir Uddin 1997:52).
AIDS is such terrible diseases, basically transmitted by under controlied, unprotected and avirus named HIV bisexually infects non regulated sexual intercourse that may homosexually, heterosexually. AIDS is the termed as a syndrome since it is the summation of some criteria and symptoms. ‘AIDS’ is a condition caused by a virus called HIV. This virus attacks the immune system breakes down, the body loses this protection and can develop many serious, often deadly infections and cancers.’AIDS’ is called ‘Syndrome’ as it is a combination of few signs and symptoms. AIDS means:
A – (Acquired) – Not achieved through birth but acquired afterwards.
I – (Immune) – Body resistance to virus diseases.
D – (Deficiency) – A shortage.
S – (Syndrome) – An accumulation of few signs and symptoms.

Sexually Transmitted Infections/ Diseases:
STIs / STDs used to be called general infections. There are communicable diseases which are transmitted by an infected man/ woman to his/ her partner during sexual intercourse. It caused by;
· Sexual intercourse;
· Infection in neonates and infants acquired during birth from their infected mother;

Name of different STIs / STDs:
· Gonorrhea
· Chlamydia
· Harpers
· Syphilis
· Cancroids
· Tricomeniasis
There are strong correlation between the presence of STIs and spread of HIV. Ulcerative and non- ulcerative STIs makes it easier for the virus to pass from one person to another person. Thus the control of STIs / STDs contributes significantly to a reduction in HIV transmission.