Term Paper on Non-communicable disease - A Threat of the Century

Noncommunicable diseases are usually thought of as chronic conditions that do not result from an acute infectious process. These conditions cause death, dysfunction, or impairment in the quality of life, and they usually develop over relatively long periods—at first without causing symptoms; but after disease manifestations develop, there may be a protracted period of impaired health. Generally, these conditions or diseases result from prolonged exposure to causative agents, many associated with personal behaviors and environmental factors. The major noncommunicable diseases are listed in Tables 1 and 2. Noncommunicable diseases also include injuries, which have an acute onset, but may be followed by prolonged convalescence and impaired function, as well as chronic mental diseases.Definition :
A non-communicable disease, or NCD, or non-infectious disease is a medical condition or disease which is non-infectious. NCDs are diseases of long duration and generally slow progression. They include heart disease, stroke, cancer, asthma, diabetes, Chronic kidney disease, osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease, cataracts, and more. While often referred to as "chronic diseases", NCDs are distinguished by their non-infectious cause. In contrast, some chronic diseases such as HIV/AIDS, while also lasting medical conditions, are caused by transmissible infections. They are similar in that they also require chronic care management.
Key NCDs
Cancer
The vast majority of cancer risk factors are environmental or lifestyle-related, thus cancer is largely a preventable disease. Greater than 30% of cancer is preventable via avoiding risk factors including: tobacco, being overweight or obesity, low fruit and vegetable intake, physical inactivity, alcohol, sexually transmitted infections, and air pollution.

Cardiovascular disease

The first studies on cardiovascular health were performed in 1949 by Jerry Morris using occupational health data and were published in 1958. The causes, prevention, and/or treatment of all forms of cardiovascular disease remain active fields of biomedical research, with hundreds of scientific studies being published on a weekly basis. A trend has emerged, particularly in the early 2000s, in which numerous studies have revealed a link between fast food and an increase in heart disease. These studies include those conducted by the Ryan Mackey Memorial Research Institute, Harvard University and the Sydney Center for Cardiovascular Health. Many major fast food chains, particularly McDonald's, have protested the methods used in these studies and have responded with healthier menu options.
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