Thesis on Exploring the Side Effects of Assessment in school and its Impact on Student

In general it is thought that to measure any achievement it is necessary to measure them. In education in every steps student give different type of test to prove themselves to be best one. And by the time they started to suffer from different types of effects by their conscious mind. And teachers also practice the aspects of these effects consciously or unconsciously. This is a study to find out the impact of the aspects of side effects of assessment on school secondary students. For this study the population was the secondary level student. The researcher takes a convenient sample from secondary school students. 30 students from two school, one is renowned Azimpur Girls School and the other is a new School Alfrukan English High School. 10 teachers are also selected as a sample from this two schools. The data is collected through structured questionnaire from both students and teachers. As this is a research of quantitative research, the researcher uses cross tabulation as statistical technique to show the in present.
It was found that according to students view their teachers practice different kind of prejudice which causes side effects of assessment. But teachers do not agree with students view. They said that they do not support these prejudice. But some kind of aspects are found, which are practiced by their teachers.
About the impact of the side effects of assessment, interesting findings are found that students are positively encouraged with the aspects of the side effects of assessment. Though some aspects are used by the teachers and students are also suffer from self-fulfilling prophecy, Hawthorne effects but they are also like different aspects of such: grading system, competitive environment. But some of the side effects are found that could be harmful for their future life and future development. So government should take steps according to the recommendation of the study to eliminate side effects of assessment and can make a developed assessment system for students learning.

Education is recognised across the world as perhaps the most vital public service of all. But how can we measure its effect? Assessment is essential to allow individuals to get the educational support they need to succeed, to see the effectiveness of different educational methods. (Ian Diamond).Now what is so called educational assessment? Assessment is the process of documenting, usually in measurable terms, knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs. Assessment can focus on the individual learner, the learning community (class, workshop, or other organized group of learners), the institution, or the educational system as a whole. (Wikipedia). As it already been said that assessment focus on individual learning we can found quite similarity statement in different declaration and educational international conference that (the Jomtien Declaration ( World Declaration on Education for All 1990). Article 4.of the Jomtien Declaration states that the focus of basic education should be “on actual learning acquisitionand outcome, rather than exclusively upon enrolment, continuedparticipation in organized programs and completion of certification requirements”(World Declaration on Education for All 1990, 5). Morerecently, the Dakar Framework for Action (UNESCO 2000), which was produced at the end of the 10-year follow-up to Jomtien, again highlighted the importance of learning outcomes. Among its list of seven agreed goals was, by 2015, to improve “all aspects of the quality of education . . . so that recognised and measurable outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy, and essential life skills”(UNESCO 2000, iv, 7).

These statements clear the objectives of educational assessment. As usual we found that these statement focus on positive aspects of education system and assessment but as we know, every action has some positive and negative reaction, so we can say that educational Assessment also have some negative action. We, almost knew what are the positive effects of assessment that (……) assessment give students information about their own performance. Students use the results to decide what they all study, how much to study, whether it is worth studying, what they are good at (or not), and how they might be able to earn their living as adults. Other assessments help teachers change and improve instruction. Still others give administrators, parents, and community members information about individual students or schools that they use in different ways. but what are the negative effects?

Yes, There are some negative effects. One could argue that a culture built on formative assessments will create weaker leaders. There is something to be said in giving a class an assignment and letting the clever pass and the slower ones fail. It builds a sense of pressure to understand on the first go-round exactly what is wanted, and it rewards those who got it by punishing those who didn't (Locusfire.Undated). Most likely, as a negative effect of assessment we know about Halo effect, Stereotype concept, Self-fulfilling prophecy and Hawthorne effect. But as a new concept grading also have some side effects. This is consciously or unconsciously practiced by the teachers and students. In our country Research from sociology, science education, mathematics education, and psychology, as well as data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) indicate some of the causes of and potential solutions for sex inequities in science education. NAEP has indicated that 13- and 17-year-old girls have strong negative attitudes toward science and have little belief that the discipline can be useful to them. Research suggests that social factors (role models and sex stereotypes), educational factors (enrolment patterns, adult expectations, and class activities), and personal factors (spatial visualization) all contribute to this negative attitude (Kahle, Jane Butler). Which may occurs for indirect impact of assessment. The harmful aspect of side effects are also can be seen. For example: in India 56% of the suicides occurred in the months from March to July (Lalwani, 2004 as cited in Manani. P and Sharma.S ,2011). These months correspond to announcements of results, entrance into college and beginning of new academic session (Manani. P and Sharma.S ,2011).

Assessment is a central element in the overall quality of teaching and learning in education. Well-designed assessment sets clear expectations, establishes a reasonable workload (one that does not push students into rote reproductive approaches to study), and provides opportunities for students to self-monitor, rehearse, practise and receive feedback. Assessment is an integral component of a coherent educational experience.(Australian Universities Teacher Committee). By this statement we, in general, can understand the importance of assessment in education. The nature and impact of assessment depends on the uses to which the results of that assessment are put. A system whose main priority is to generate information for internal use by teachers on the next steps in pupils’ learning may have different characteristics and effects from one where the drive is to produce qualification which will provide a grade on which an employer or a university admissions tutor might rely in order to judge the suitability of a candidate for employment or further study. Particularly if results are to be used in “high stakes” situations, important questions must be asked. If, for example, the fate of a school may hang on a single set of test results, are the data they generate reliable enough to serve as a measure of the overall quality of that institution? Are they valid in measuring all that is felt to be important in education? Do they ultimately provide information that will help pupils improve? Finally, does the act of placing weight on the results of these tests affect the teaching that takes place in preparation for these assessments and, if there are negative impacts, are we prepared to tolerate them?(Mansell,w,James.M and TLRP, 2009).

So it must be identified in which purpose assessments are used. By knowing the real purpose one can minimise the negative sides of his or her assessment our country the side effects of assessment are broadly used. But most of the time the user don’t know why they are behaving like this. For example, in Bangladesh there are a variety of ways in which EEO (equal employment opportunity) principle is compromised and violated in the public service. It further shows that in recent times the administration of EEO has been frustrated and undermined further given the increasing trends of politicization of the public service and the high incidence of corruption and patronage in its management (NooreAlamSiddiquee & Md. GofranFaroqi ). As it is an assessment system this can also be occur in school level to assess any student. So everyone should know about the aspects of assessment in where the side effects of assessments are strongly used, should know how does our school teacher practice the side effects of assessment and how does the side effects of assessment affect the school students, to protect themselves of practicing it, as it is an unknown term to most of our teachers and students.