Assignment on Different methods of performance appraisal

A performance appraisal (PA) is a systematic and periodic process that assesses an individual employee’s job performance and productivity in relation to certain pre-established criteria and organizational objectives.
According to the Biswanath Ghosh, “Performance appraisal means deciding the value of the work done by an individual.”
“Performance appraisal is the formal assessment of the work performance of the employees” – Martand T. Teisang.

Performance appraisal methods
1. Critical incident method
2. Weighted checklist
3. Paired comparison analysis
4. Graphic rating scales
5. Essay Evaluation
6. Behaviorally anchored rating scales
7. Performance ranking method
8. Management By Objectives (MBO)
9. 360 degree performance appraisal
10. Forced ranking (forced distribution)
11. Behavioral Observation Scales (BOS)
1. Critical incident technique (CIT model)
CIT model is method used for collecting observations of human behavior that are judged to be “effective” or “ineffective” in work, activities.
Definition of critical incident by Computer Science at Virginia Tech- “Critical incident is an event that has a significant effect, either positive or negative, on task performance or user satisfaction, thus affecting usability.”
Definition of CIT model by wikipedia- “The Critical Incident Technique (or CIT) is a set of procedures used for collecting direct observations of human behavior that have critical significance and meet methodically defined criteria”
Definition of CIT method / technique by Flanagan, J. C -“The critical incident technique of job analysis is used to identify work behaviors that classify in good and poor performance“
Definition of CIT method / technique by Abbott & Schuster- “Simply, critical incident involves the collection of observations of employee behaviors that are both effective and ineffective”
This format of performance appraisal is a method which is involved identifying and describing specific incidents where employees did something really well or that needs improving during their performance period.
Application of CIT method / technique:
The critical incident technique has been applied in studying some sector as follows:
• Organizational development
• Large scale tasks and activity analysis of numerous occupations
• Health care.
• Market research etc.
Information source of CIT method / technique:
Sources for critical incidents include:
• Workers
• co-workers
• supervisors,
• managers,
• Customer
• External and internal suppliers
• And others.
Sample questions of critical incident technique
Context Questions
• Tell me what you know about what happened.
• Please, think of what was happening when you were carrying out activity X.
• Were any events particularly good or helpful to you?
• Were any events particularly bad or unhelpful to you?
• Ask participants to describe an event, what let up to it, and what happened as a result.
• Incident context – What led up to the incident (background)? What was the situation?
• Describe what led up to the situation.
• What assumptions have I made about the client, problem, or situation.
• What were the circumstances surrounding the incident? What was the situation?
• What will I do if I am faced with a similar situation in the future?
Behavior question:
• What exactly did the person do that was effective / ineffective?
• Exactly, what did the person do or not do that was especially, effective or ineffective?
• What was the outcome or result of this action?
• Why was this action effective, or what more effective  action might have been expected?
Consequence questions:
• What was the outcome of the behavior?
• What were the consequences of the behavior? Were the consequences due to the person’s behavior?
• How long ago the incident happened;
• What you observed being done, or not being done – the behavior; and
• What resulted that led you to believe the action was effective or ineffective – the consequences.
• You also will be asked to supply some descriptive information about the context in which the incident occurred.
• The circumstances leading up to the incident – the antecedents;
Example of critical incident:
Generally, to conduct this method first we have to select one criterion. Normally, most crucial one is selected. Then evaluate the employees based on how well they perform that job. For salespersons criterion could be sale volume. Top performer will be who sales the most.