Assignment on Human Development and Social Protection

Human development is a process of enlarging people's choices. The most critical ones are to lead a long and healthy life, to be educated and to enjoy a decent standard of living. Additional choices include political freedom, guaranteed humanrights and selfrespect - what Adam Smith called the ability to mix with others without being "ashamed to appear in publick" (box 1.1). It is sometimes suggested that income is a good proxy for all other human choices since access to income permits exercise of every other option. This is only partly true for a variety of reasons: Income is a means, not an end. It may be used for essential medicines or narcotic drugs. Well-being of a society depends on the uses to which income is put, not on thelevel ofincome itself.

· Country experience demonstrates several cases ofhigh levels ofhuman development at modest income levels and poor levels ofhuman development at fairly high income levels.

· Present income of a country may offer little guidance to its future growth prospects. Ifit has already invested in its people, its potential income may be much higher than what its current income level shows, and vice versa.

Measurement of human development
In any system for measuring and monitoring human development, the idealwould be to include many variables, to obtain as comprehensive a picture as possible. But the current lack of relevant comparable statistics precludes that. Nor is such comprehensiveness entirely desirable. Too many indicators could produce a perplexing picture - perhaps distracting policymakers from the main overall trends. The crucial issue therefore is ofemphasis

Bangladesh’s HDI value and rank

Bangladesh’s HDI value for 2012 is 0.515—in the low human development category—positioning the country at 146 out of 187 countries and territories. The rank is shared with Pakistan. Between 1980 and 2012, Bangladesh’s HDI value increased from 0.312 to 0.515, an increase of 65 percent or average annual increase of about 1.6 percent.

The rank of Bangladesh’s HDI for 2011 based on data available in 2012 and methods used in 2012 was– 147 out of 187 countries. In the 2011 HDR, Bangladesh was ranked 146 out of 187 countries. However, it is misleading to compare values and rankings with those of previously published reports, because the underlying data and methods have changed.

Table A reviews Bangladesh’s progress in each of the HDI indicators. Between 1980 and 2012, Bangladesh’s life expectancy at birth increased by 14.0 years, mean years of schooling increased by 2.8 years and expected years of schooling increased by 3.7 years. Bangladesh’s GNI per capita increased by about 175 percent between 1980 and 2012.