Assignment On Good Governance In Climate Change- Bangladesh Perspective

Good Governance aims to contribute to overall development of a country. Governance has become a popular, if not trendy concept in much of the political, development and academic debate. In the second half of the 1980s as the cold war thawing the issue of governance of international organizations became a matter of serious and high level consideration, though it is rather an old concept as human civilization. It was used in French as “governance” in the fourteenth century, meaning ‘royal officers’.

Ideas about ‘governance’ now appear in many contexts: as ‘corporate’ governance, ‘global’ governance ‘national’ governance and ‘local’ governance or simply ‘good’ governance refers to the act of governing in a wide sense and also ‘governance’ means the process of decision are implemented (or not implemented). Governance as an analytical perspective is still emerging and there are contending views surrounding the concept.

Governance has been viewed from different angles focusing on various dimensions of it. In general, sense governance means exercising political power to manage a nation’s affair. Today governance is seen as a reflection of the role of the state in giving direction to the development, a country and political regime. Only recently McCarney, Halfami and Rodriguez become successful in placing the term ‘Governance’ in a broader context and focusing on its core aspects. According to them, governance has two things, in the first sense; “it means a system of government concentrating on effective and accountable institutions, democratic principles and electoral process, representative and responsible structures to ensure an open and legitimate relationship between the civil society and the state.” (McCarney, et al. 1995)

UNDP made another precise definition of governance. According to UNDP, “Governance is viewed as the exercise of economic, political and administrative authority to manage country affairs at all levels. It comprises mechanisms, processes and institutions, through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations and mediate their differences”.
World Bank defines Governance as “the manner in which power is exercised in the management of a country’s economic and social resources for development,” The World Bank has identified three distinct aspect of governance:
The form of political regime.
The process by which authority is exercised in the management of a country’s economic and social resources for development.
The capacity of governments to design, formulate and implement policies and discharge functions.

Another widely accepted definition was made by Jon Pierre and Guy Peters. They wrote in this context, “Governance can be a confusing term. It has become an umbrella concept for such a wide variety of phenomena as policy networks (Rhodes, 1997), public management (Hood, 1990), coordination of sectors of the economy (Campbell et al. 1991; Hollingsworth at al., 1994), public-private partnerships (Pierre, 1980), corporate governance (Williamson, 1996), and ‘good governance’ as a reform objective promoted by the World Bank and the IMF (Laftwich, 1994). Furthermore, there is a tendency to confuse governance as an empirical phenomenon with theories about how this phenomenon operates and can be understood”.