Assignment On Project Management And Its knowledge AREAS

Project Management is the discipline of organizing and managing resources in a such way that the project is completed within defined scope, quality, time and cost constraints. A project is a temporary and one time endeavar under taken to create a unique product or services which brings about beneficial changes or added value. This property of being a temporary and a one time undertaking contrasts with processes or operation which are permanent or semi permanent organizing unctional work to create the seme product or service over and over again. The management of there two systems is often very different and requires varying technical skills and phelosply, hence requiring the development of project management.
The first challenge of project management is to ensure that a project is delivered within defined comtraints. The second, more amlbitous challenge in the optimized allocation and integration of inputs needed to meet predefined objectives. A project in a care fully defined set of activities that use resources to meet the prefined objectives.

History of Project Management
As a discipline, Project Management developed from different fields of application including construction, engineering, and defense. In the United States, the forefather ofproject management is Fienry Gantt, called the father of planning and control teclmiques, who is famously known for his use of the “bar” chart as a project management tool, for being an associate of Frederick Winslow Taylor’s theories of scientific management and for his study of the work and management of Navy ship building. His work is the forerunner to many modem project management tools including the work breakdown structure (WBS) and resource allocation.

The 1950s marked the beginning of the modem project manage;nent era. Again, in the United States, prior to the 1950s, projects were managed on an ad hoc basis using mostly Gantt Charts, and informal tecimiques and tools. At that time, two mathematical project scheduling models were develou”d: (1) the “Program Evaluation and Review Technique” or PERT, developed by Booz-Allen & Hamilton as part of the United States Navy’s (in conjunction with the Lockheed Corporation), Polaris missile submarine program and (2) the “Critical Path Method” (CPM) developed in a joint venture by both DuPont Corporation and Remington Rand Corporation for managing plant maintenance projects. These mathematical techniques quickly spread into many private enterprises.