Thesis on the Impact of Rural-Urban Migration on the Urban Poor People- A Study on the Slum Dwellers of Dhaka City

The study entitled as “Impact of rural-urban migration on the urban poor people : A study on the slum dwellers of Dhaka City” is initiated to find out the real picture of the urban poor people who take shelter in various slums of Dhaka City after migration. Now a days Dhaka City turned into a one of the largest mega city of the world. Due to rural-urban migration , the structure of the city has been changing day by day. Consequently, the city is facing with different types of problems.

Migration is one of the important factors for urbanization and slum is the effect of that. Migration is a change in the place of residence i.e. movement from one place to another. The stream of rural-urban migration is higher than that of any other migration in Bangladesh. For Dhaka, this stream accounts for as much as 83 per cent of all in migration, which only 7.5 per cent had come from small town, 3.5 per cent from other districts of the country. .

The population of town in Bangladesh is increasing rapidly along with the developed countries. The population of town was 5074000 in 1970 which is 7.6% of total population. This figure becomes 22 million in 1990. As a result in 2000 this figure becomes 345480000 which is 22.9% of total population. The population of town is 20% of total population according to the economic survey of 1998. So, it can be told that Urbanization in Bangladesh is increasing very rapidly. 

The impact of urbanization is higher on Dhaka city then any other cities of Bangladesh presently it has more than 10 million in habitants. (B.B.S. 2005). In 1991 it was around 7 million and expert estimated that the number of population will touch the figure 25 million within 2025. Due to the rapid growth of urbanization, the number of slums and slum dwellers are increasing day by day. 

The rural-urban migration contributes about 74% in increase of population of Dhaka city which was 62.8% in 1980 to 1985.In the national census of 1991 it is found that more than 20.15% people live in urban areas which constitutes 10 million urban people. But the figure now change into 31.3 million in 1st July 2003. 

For going deep into the above concerned issue, the study is directed and this study paper divided into nine chapters. The first chapter is the introductory one, where the methodology & conceptual frame work of the study have been mentioned . The chapter two describes the literature related to the study title & chapter three deals with the factors & theories of rural-urban migration. In chapter (5.6.7) the findings of they study are presented. These chapter include the findings & statistical analysis of the study according to the data directly collected from the field. The chapter eight describes a few case studies of migrants whom are leading a miser able life in their present destination. Finally the chapter eight includes major findings, conclusions & recommendation. 

However, I believe, to solve the various multi-dimensional problems of urban poor people, to remove the unplanned slums, to reduce the growth of rural-urban migration and create more employment opportunities in the rural areas are immediately needed to check out. In this regard this study paper will help the planners to formulate policy, Plan and programs to address the above mentioned issues. 

Migration is a result of a complex web of phenomenon. People migrate for miscellaneous reasons. Theses reasons can be structural, individual framework, economic, social, political, demographic and physical factors act as variables behind the process of migration. 

Migration is one of the important factors for urbanization and slum is the effect of that. Migration is a change in the place of residence i.e. movement from one place to another. The stream of rural-urban migration is higher than that of any other migration in Bangladesh. For Dhaka, this stream accounts for as much as 83 per cent of all in migration, which only 7.5 per cent had come from small town, 3.5 per cent from other districts of the country (Islam: 2002). Some of the migrant’s from other urban areas were also born in those places and made direct move to the metropolis. The hypothesis that direct rural to metropolis migration is dominant in Asian cities (McGee: 1971) This condition is endorsed by the evidence of the Dhaka City migrants. The overwhelming role of the rural-urban migration to Dhaka is easily expounded by the fact that Bangladesh is basically a rural country. Economic condition and distance of places of origin seem to play strong influence on the value of migration into the capital.

The determinants of various kinds behind rural to urban migration can be classified into two major groups for the sake of convenience, namely, a) the economic factor and b) the non-economic factors. Economic factors obviously are the most dominant reasons for rural-urban migration into the cities of developing countries There are two types of hypothesis in this connection. In the first type of hypothesis, it is argued that migration takes place because of the existence of differences in income or employment opportunities while the second hypothesis, more recent, postulates that in addition to rural-urban income differentials, intra-rural inequalities are major causes of rural-urban migration. Those hypotheses are strongly logical in Bangladeshi perspective. Findings of this study also support those hypotheses.

Tendency of urbanization is increasing very rapidly in modern age. People are coming towards town for different kinds of advantages. Urban area is known as service centre. Here, we get developed highway, communication facility, gas, electricity, water supply etc very easily. People of city are involved in official duties or mill-factories and the density of people are very high here. For this reason people are coming towards city. Beside these, natural disaster, flood, draught and erosion of river are creating more unemployment in rural area. 

Naturally there is some degree of uncertainly about the population, especially in a developing country such as Bangladesh with a high level of illiteracy and rural population. The following table lists various recent estimates of the population.

Table: 1.1 : Recent Estimates of the Population of Bangladesh
Source
Year
Population (million)
National Census
1991
112
National Census
2001
129
UN Population Fund
2003
150
Un Dept Economic and Social Affairs
2005
142
US States Dept
2005
144
Population Reference Bureau
2005
144
CIA World Fact Book
2006
147
UN Population
2006
144
CIA World Fact Book
2007
150
UN
2007
159
 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_Bangladesh, accessed on 26.05.2008.
Though still comparatively rural, Bangladesh has an urban population of about 35 million, or just over 25 percent of its total population. Moreover, the urban population has been growing very rapidly since liberation in 1971 and continues to do so at over 3.5 percent annually. The country will likely have an urban population approaching 50 million by 2015. This rapid growth has been due primarily to migration by the rural poor, particularly to large metropolitan areas. On arrival, these poor migrants routinely turn to slums and squatter settlements for shelter.