An Assignment On Gender and Urban Livelihood Challenges in Bangladesh

Urban Livelihood of Bangladesh

In the new conceptualization of poverty reduction, access to livelihood resources, capabilities building, security against vulnerability and equality of gender have come to be viewed as one integral process of the national plans of macroeconomic and social policies to promote growth and reduce poverty. The adoption of Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) approach and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has led to an increased need for systematic analysis of poverty and its linkage with gender inequality. All South Asian countries have ratified CEDAW (Convention for Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women), the Platform for Action at Beijing (1995) and other major human rights instruments and have National Plans of Action on women’s development and gender equality. Poverty is a human condition characterized by low income, lack of voice, sustained deprivation of capabilities, choices and power that are necessary for the enjoyment of fundamental human rights.
It must be measured against the full range of rights, standards of social equality and non-discrimination as well as obligation of the state and other development actors, including civil society organizations, community management bodies and corporations. Women’s movements, feminist researchers and numerous civil society organizations in the region have expressed deep dissatisfaction over the current poverty assessments for failing to incorporate women’s concerns or overlooking gender relations of inequality. Furthermore, community perceptions are given great weight in participatory assessments, but these reflect social norms and values that tend to overlook gender inequalities in resources, voice and women’s vulnerability to violence and economic risks. Measures like GDI (GenderDevelopment Index) and GEM (Gender Related Empowerment Measures) adopted to indicate the level of women’s development has not been able to capture the position gained by women in accessing livelihoods. As a result, such indices have failed to grasp real achievements and also the barriers against rural women. Poverty diagnostic data are rarely gender segregated and likewise is the case of data on the informal economy and macro economic policies. The systems of national accounts in South Asia are seriously affected by statistical invisibility of women.There is poor conceptualization of women’s economic roles and inadequate attentionto home production, household work and unpaid family labour.