Assignment on International trade payment methods and their application in Bangladesh

Globalization of national economics has given a boost to international trade. There are many factors, which need to be taken into consideration in the course of international trading. In an international trading transaction the seller and the buyer must agree for a product or service, or its quality, price etc., enter into a sales contract spelling out precisely shipping and delivery details, terms of payment, required documentation and other related issues including dispute settlement procedure and legal framework available.
To succeed in today’s global marketplace, exporters must offer their customers attrac­tive sales terms supported by the appropriate payment method to win sales against foreign competitors. As getting paid in full and on time is the primary goal for each export sale, an appropriate payment method must be chosen carefully to minimize the payment risk while also accommodating the needs of the buyer. There are four primary methods of payment for international transactions.

Main features
  • International trade presents a spectrum of risk, causing uncertainty over the timing of payments between the exporter (seller) and importer (foreign buyer).
  • To exporters, any sale is a gift until payment is received.
  • Therefore, the exporter wants payment as soon as possible, preferably as soon as an order is placed or before the goods are sent to the importer.
  • To importers, any payment is a donation until the goods are received.
  • Therefore, the importer wants to receive the goods as soon as possible, but to delay payment as long as possible, preferably until after the goods are resold to generate enough income to make payment to the exporter.
Methods of Payment in International Trade

Cash-in-Advance
With the cash-in-advance payment method, the exporter can avoid credit risk or the risk of nonpayment, since payment is received prior to the transfer of owner­ship of the goods. Wire transfers and credit cards are the most commonly used cash-in-advance options available to exporters. However, requiring payment in advance is the least attractive option for the buyer, as this method tends to create cash flow prob­lems, and unless the seller sees no other option or the buyer has other vendors to choose from, it often is not a competitive option. In addition, foreign buyers are often concerned that the goods may not be sent if payment is made in advance. Exporters that insist on this method of payment as their sole method of doing business may find themselves losing out to competitors who may be willing to offer more attractive payment terms.