Rabies Elimination in Bangladesh

Rabies is a viral disease that causes acute inflammation of the brain in warm-blooded animals. The virus of the disease can be transmitted from one species to another, such as from dogs to humans, commonly by a bite from an infected animal. More than two thousand people die of rabies in Bangladesh every year (Wikipedia). Though the fatalities are preventable through right remedies, it is a rumor that “Once infected with rabies death is inevitable. But the fatal disease is totally preventable with the help of vaccines. According to FDA. Nearly 10,000 people take treatment of human rabies by taking anti-rabies vaccine in Bangladesh. (Briefing newsmen, senior product manager of Renata). In 80 percent cases of rabies, hydrophobia (fear of water) and aerophobia (fear of air) occur while in rest 20 per cent cases it is paralysis. Infected people die a hard death in cases of rabies. World Health Organization (WHO) spends more resources for rabies program in countries like Laos where annual cases hardly reach double figures while in Bangladesh the international organization hardly has any program.(The Bangladesh Observer, July 27, 2004).

This descriptive study in the Infectious Disease Hospital, Dhaka, on rabies was carried out to see the patterns of presentation, age group at risk, state of vaccination following animal exposure and the interval between animal exposure and the development of the disease (Abbas). Of 684 cases of rabies from June 1999 to November 2003, majority (64.18%) of the victims were within 15 years of age. Male gender (76.75%) and rural people (86.40%) constituted the bulk of the cases. 80.26% of cases had WHO category III exposure. Most of the cases were not vaccinated (86.04%). Among 93 cases who received vaccine, only 9.67% took tissue culture vaccine and 90.3% were treated with nerve tissue vaccine. None of the 684 cases were treated with RIG. Dog was the principal animal responsible for 95.76% cases. 65.93% of the cases developed the disease between 31 to 100 days after the animal exposure (Al-Mahamud, M.Rahman, and T.Sakura).

The first World Rabies Day campaign took place in September 2007 as a partnership between the Alliance for Rabies Control and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA (CDC), with the co-sponsorship of the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the Pan American Health Organization (World Rabies Day website accessed November 16th 2010). Bangladesh had celebrated the World Rabies Day on 28th September, 2012 with a target to eliminate the deadly viral infection mainly transmitted by dog bite by 2020 through vaccination. Officials say they adopted strategies to stop the menace that claimed nearly 2,000 lives a year until recently. It seemed to have declined to respond to ‘extensive’ programs. Prof Be-Nazir Ahmed, a Director at the Centre for Disease Control of the Directorate General of Health Services, told bdnews24.com that they estimate 200,000 to 300,000 dog bites a year, and under-15 children to be the worst victims. The Director also said they had started mass vaccination of dogs in eight Rangpur Division districts and would take the program to Rajshahi region in October 2012. “We will complete the vaccination in phases,” he said, “Our target is to acquire community immunity. If we can immune 70 percent dogs of a community by giving vaccines in three rounds, there will be no chance of them being infected by rabies,” he explained.” (Prof Be-Nazir Ahmed, 28th September, 2012). So it is our Aim is to have a rabies free Bangladesh.

Objectives:

Ø How much doges are there in Bangladesh?

Ø In how much district the rabies elimination program is started?

Ø How much district already been finished the program?

Ø In how much district the program is going on?

Ø How much people are died by rabies in every year?

Ø What is the vaccinated process?

Ø How much doges are vaccinated in every district?

Ø How much doges are not vaccinated till now?

Ø What are the plans the use to remove rabies from Bangladesh?

Ø How many organizations are involved in this program?

Ø When the program will be ended?


Materials and Methods: 
Study Site: Though our research topic is “Rabies elimination in Bangladesh” so our study site is all over the Bangladesh. This program is started at four division in Bangladesh are Dhaka, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Chittagong. Now it is going to Barisal and Sylhet. So now we conducting our research based on the result of Dhaka, Rajshahi, Rangpur, and Chittagong. Large number of our data we will collect from Dhaka division.

Source of data: There are four basic research methods for descriptive and causal research, such as –survey, experiments, secondary data studies (also included primary), and observation. The objective of the research method, the available data sources, and the urgency of the decision and the cost of obtaining the data will determine which method is chosen. We chose the secondary data for our research because the entire step about the program is taking by the Bangladesh Health Organization and some other NGO. So very easily we can use their data for our research purpose. From the employees of the BHO (Bangladesh Health Organization), people of the top management of the company different references book, internet etc.