A Land Use Survey and Socio-Economic Condition For Sustainable Land Management

A Land Use Survey and Socio-Economic Condition For Sustainable Land Management: A study on Maddha Sonaichari Mouza, Sitakunda, Chittagong

Man is one of the most intelligent creatures of the nature. He can do many things according his own choice. He can think independently can gather knowledge about others and its surroundings. From, very ancient times people are living in the earth with many adverse situations and applying own intelligence to overcome these problems. Due to doing these jobs he is gathering much information. Probably it was also the beginning of the geographical knowledge. There is justifiability behind this hypothesis. From that view geography is the ancient subject of knowledge. At present geography is full-fledged subject. The extent of geographical knowledge is getting wider to keep pace with the development of science. There are many ways to gather the geographical knowledge. This geographical knowledge is important for the various aspects. Land use survey is one of the very important ways to gather the wider range of information about any particular area. Survey is essential and easier way to get the information about the surroundings. Many unknown information are opened due to the survey. So there is no way to deny the essentiality of survey. Survey may be varied on the basis of the purposes. Land survey / Socio-economic survey / Agricultural survey etc are the different types of survey. Land survey is launched for getting the information about the land characteristics and getting the information about land use pattern of any particular area. Socio-economic survey is launched for getting the information about the socio-economic structure of any area. Due to the requirements of our course curriculum we have conducted these two surveys.

Bangladesh is a land of huge population but our total land area is limited. The amount of per capita land is too limited. So, the food, accommodation problem is seen here. Only the proper survey and planning about land uses can solve these problems.

However survey increases the practical knowledge beside theoretical text, which made easier from man to live in conformity with the environment. So the students of environment conduct survey every year on different issues. By this survey the students came to know about the details of a particular area and can apply the knowledge of the theory with that of practical one. The students of this dept. used to conduct survey every year especially land use and socio−economic conditions. We the honors’ final year (2010-201011) students surveyed one mouza under Maddha Sonaichori Shitakundu Thana of Chittagong District and decided to go there to study the land use and socio−economic profile of the people.

Bangladesh is a land of huge population but our total land area is limited. The amount of cultivable land is too limited. This scarcity is matter of fact because land can’t increase but amount of population increases rapidly. If Bangladesh wishes to develop its rural and urban areas and introduce world facilities here reconstruction and practical oriented plans are needed. Proper implementations of these plans are required with the suitable maintenance. Now-a-days, to develop any country survey is essential. However in Bangladesh they have adopted this technique lately, such as in 1957 on the Meghna river side near Dhaka city, the first land use survey was carried out and this system started. So Bangladesh should work with land use survey if Bangladesh wants to be reconstructed and re-planned.

1.2. Land use
Land use is very early concept. Land is the basic resource of human society and land use is the surface utilization of all developed and vacant land on a specific point, at a given time and space. Many geographers defined the land uses.
According to Freeman, 1968…“…leads one back to the village farm and the farmer, to the fields, gardens, pastures, fallow land, forests and to the isolated farmstead.”
So, land use means the using of the lands for different functions. The different types of land use pattern can be known by the help of the land use. The land use pattern varies for the different areas. As geography deals with the spatial relationship between these aspects and planning, this is because land use changes to meet the variable demands of the land by the society in its new ways and condition of life.

1.3. Factors of land use
Land use is conditioned by the association of two sets of factors. This are-

i. Physical factors-
§ Geology,
§ Relief features,
§ Climate,
§ Soil and
§ Vegetation etc.
ii. Cultural factors-
§ The length of occupancy of the area,
§ Land tenancy
§ Religion
§ Political condition
§ Demographic and socio-economic conditions,
§ Nearness of market
§ Technology
§ Law & legal system

Despite these there are two other factors of land uses. These are Location and Time.

1.4. World land use classification
The increasing on population needs additional land for shelter and food produce and requires judicious utilization of our land resources. In view of this surging problem, world land use inventory survey had been proposed in the international geographical congress at Lisbon in April 1949. An over whelming support was received from UNESCO to finance this ambitious project.

On this basis land use survey has been carried out in several countries including Poland, Cyprus, Italy, Jamaica and others. There is an urgent need to carry out these surveys, and the maps prepared afterwards should be compared. To coordinate the works to different world organizations are another important task for the commission on international land use survey.
This commission proposed a simple classification of world land use along with color scheme, which is mainly suited to local condition.

World land use survey was drawn up under the auspices UNSCO.
The classification is as follows:
a. Settlement and associated non-agricultural land (dark and light red).
b. Horticulture (deep purple).
c. Tree and perennial crops (light purple).
d. Cropland (light brown).
e. Improved permanent pasture (light green).
f. Unimproved grazing used (orange).
g. Woodlands, dense (dark green).
h. Swamps and marshes (blue).
i. Unproductive land (grey).
1.5. Land utilization
Land utilization is the use made of the land by man, as surveyed and mapped in a series of recognized categories. According to J.L Black (1951).

Land utilization is the satisfaction, which the farm population derives from the type of agriculture developed, the provision for future production and the contribution to national needs.”

1.6. Land use survey
Land use survey was first introduced in the late 20th century. Prat an American geographer of Chicago University was first started this work. During the 1930s in U.S.A five hundred fifty sq miles of land named “Tense valley authority” was surveyed; and this survey was conducted by G. Hudson. In the 1930s Dudly Stamp a British geographer first started land use survey in England through the grammar school students. The produced the ordnance map of a tiny local area of England under the direct supervision of Stamp. After the end of the 2nd world war Stamp again done the land use survey through that ordnance map and tried to distinguished the change of that area within fifteen years. Through this survey the British started to use their cultivable land.

During the 1st decade of 1948 the IGU (international geographical union) made a land use commission and S.B Volkenburg was appointed for the chairman of that commission. In January 1952 he asked all the geographer of the world to take training about the land use survey.

In the beginning of 1950s, Dudly Stamp came to Geography Department of Dhaka University and took initiative of land use survey. Since then the land use survey started in the Geography Dept. every year the 4th year students of this department goes to different areas of Bangladesh for land use survey. They produce report on this and also produce different land use map of the surveyed area. Land use survey is a general applied aspect for the graduate level student of Geography and environment Dept. of Dhaka University.

For any research or field survey four sources of factual information is needed. These are mentioned in below.

1. Documents- Maps, ground photograph, statistics, records, books, journals etc.
2. Air photographs, satellite imageries.
3. Direct observation and
4. Interview with informants.
We use satellite image plot by plot and total survey areas satellite image and we also use base map (RS map) of Sonaichari mouza. In the field we have collected the land use information on our base map identifying them plot to plot. We have manipulated the collected data tracing the base map and the map is produced by following International Color Scheme to illustrate different themes & then map is analyzed.

1.7. Preliminary Procedure of Land use survey
The preliminary procedures of land use survey are mentioned in below.
Ø The statement of objective.
Ø The search for documents materials.
Ø Selection of base maps or Air photographs
Ø The formulation of a field plane.

1.8. Our field and land use survey
08 no Maddha Sonaichori mouza,Shitakundu Upazilla of Chittagong district was Geography & Environment of Dhaka University, session 2010-2011 went to Chittagong We surveyed one mouzas of two sheets , J.L. no-48 about Maddha Sonaichori.

For the case of conducting a land use and socio-economic survey with our honorable teacher Dr.Maksodur Rahman and then thanks also to those who have helped our study.

1.9. Aims and Objectives of the land use survey
Each year the students of each batch of Department of Geography and Environment go several areas of the country for survey and collect information. Each batch has some aims and objectives at the time of survey. In this circumstances survey on socio-economic and land use pattern of one mouzas of two sheets , J.L. no-48 of Maddha Sonaichori under Chittagong district have some aims and objectives, which are in follows-

1.9.1. General Objective
In the department of geography and environment it is mandatory for the 4th year students to attain sufficient experience in data collection of practical field work in order to gain first hand skill in land use survey. So to familiarizing the outside work, outside field, both physical and socioeconomic aspects and ultimately survey the whole area from plot to plot, road to road and house to house is essential.

1.9.2. Specific objectives
The specific objectives of the survey are as follows:
a. To know about the land use pattern of the selected mouza.
b. Mapping the study area.
c. To understand about the socioeconomic condition of the studied areas.
d. To realize the environmental condition of the studied areas.
e. To observe the man- land interaction of the study areas.
f. To compare between rural and urban land use pattern socio economic and environmental condition of the study area.
g. To realize the changing pattern of land uses of study areas.