Effectiveness of Social Bonding Theory- In the Context of Bangladesh

Gradually delinquent rate is seriously increasing and if its increase by this way then it will create a serious panic for our nation in the future. We also know that, many study shows that, there has a high possibility to become a delinquent to a criminal. So we have to prevent it in the beginning. To prevent the increasing rate of delinquency we have to know what factors are responsible for increasing delinquency rate. The social bonding theory of delinquency shows the reason of being delinquent and it obtain high support in the western. The purpose of the study is justifying western knowledge in the context of Bangladesh. This research shows that in the context of Bangladesh attachment (to parents, peers, teachers and adult) is not responsible for delinquency. Commitment is moderately responsible for delinquency; social Involvement and belief are highly responsible for delinquency. And finally the four factors of measuring bonding concept shows that the strength is moderate but at present the rate of delinquent involvement is high, so it is moderately rejected in our country. This study has done over 91 respondents, which was selected through Systematic Random sampling method.
Social bonding theory generally focuses on informal system. The proposition of social bonding theory is that when an individual bond to society is weak or broken then the result will be motivated to delinquent acts or criminal acts. Hirschi posited four social bonds that promote socialization and conformity. They are attachment, commitment, involvement and beliefs. These four bonds show the extent of individual social control and its relationship with deviance or delinquency and determine techniques and strategies that regulate human behavior. Attachment takes three forms: attachment to parents, to school (teachers) and peers.  The significant attachment to parents refrain the child from delinquency.
The strength of attachment to parents depends on the depth and quality of parent-child interaction. Hirschi linked inability to function well in school to delinquency through the following chain of events: academic incompetence leads to poor school performance; poor school performance results in a dislike of school; dislike of school leads to rejection of teachers and administrators as authorities, than the result is delinquency. Thus attachment to school depends on a youngster’s appreciation for the institution, perception of how he or she is received by teachers and peers, and level of achievement in class.
Hirschi’s second groups of bond consists of commitment to or investment in conventional line of action-that is, support of and participation in social activities that tie the individual to the society’s moral or ethical code. Hirschi identified a number of stakes in conformity or commitments: vocational aspirations, educational expectation, and educational aspirations. Hirschi’s third bond is involvement, or preoccupation with activities that promote the interests of society. This bond is derived from involvement in school related activities (such as homework) rather than in working class adult activities (such as smoking and drinking). A person who is busy doing conventional things has little time for deviant activities. The last of the bonds, belief, consists of assent to the society’s value system. The value system of any society entails respect for its laws and for the people and institutions that enforce them. The results of Hirschi’s survey lead to the conclusion that if young people no longer believe laws are fair, their bond to society weakens, and the probability that they will commit delinquent acts increases.
The stronger these four elements of social bonding, the more the individual’s behavior will be controlled in the direction of conformity. The weaker they are, the more likely it is that the individual will violate the law. These four elements are highly intercorrelated; the weakening of one will probably be accompanied by the weakening of another. In social bonding theory, Hirchi says that, those who break laws they are motivated by their inability to fit the normal, cohesive order. They are “discontent”, “frustrated”, “deprived” (Hirchi, 1969). These negative tendencies grow from a discrepancy between aspirations and expectations. Hirchi found that academic aptitude was related to delinquency. Hirchi also found that the closer the child’s relations with his parents, the more he is attached to and identifies with them, the lower his chances of delinquency. Hirchi explored the relationship of delinquency and attachment to school. He found that a general dislike of school, a disdain for what teachers think of students were all related to higher levels of delinquency. The more attached the boy/girl was to the school environment and its norms, the less likely he/she was to be delinquent.
Social bonding theory is very much important for giving explanation of the causes of delinquency in the western. Michael handling studied on this theory found that no relationship with attachment and delinquency and strong relationship of involvement and delinquency. Latter Lind and Hackler (1973), Conger (1976), Elliott, et al (1985) found that attachment to delinquent’s peer’s leas to delinquency but this the contrary to bonding theory. Jensen and Brownfield (1983) did a study on social bonding theory and he found that the sometimes-parental attachment encourages delinquency. Krohn and Massy (1980) see that the social bonding variables are moderately related to serious delinquency.