Thesis on Impact of Water Pollution on Health: A Study of Hazaribag in Dhaka City

The main objective of this study is analysis the water pollution at Hazaribagh Tahan in Dhaka city and analysis causes, impact and the effects on human, aquatic animals and the environment. Water pollution is become a very common problem for animals and natural environment. Though the development process water pollution is increasing day by day and going out of control. Sewage and waste water, industrial waste, oil pollution. spread/spill, atmospheric deposition and structural problem, huge amount of residence industrial augmentation are the main factor of water pollution. In the Buriganga river, the concentration of the polluting parameters at all the sampling location is very high indicating that the river is highly polluted. In dry session Hazaribagh Tannery is most polluted of all the sites. Nickle, lead, cadmium and Zink are also very high than the tolerable limit at Hazaribag area. Finally the study indicates the concentrations of all pollutants were higher during the dry session, when the rainfall was comparatively low. But during the wet season the values were comparatively low within the standard level given by WHO, because the rainfall is very high and dilution occurred. Pollution is so high that the color of the entire river becomes blackish and very unpleasant odor.

1.1 Introduction:
The word population has been taken from the Latin word pollutioem, meaning defilement from pollure, to soil or defile (make dirty). Oxford English Dictionary used the word pollute with reference to physical contamination of terrestrial or aquatic environments in nineteenth century. In 20th­ century the word pollution was used with reference to contamination of water, soil and air (Kudesia, 1990). In other word, pollution means undesirable state of the natural environment being contaminated with harmful substances as a consequence of human activities (wordnetweb). Pollution damages the Earth’s land, water and air. It results in contamination of the earth’s environment with materials that interfere with human health, the quality of life, and the natural functioning of ecosystems (living organisms and their physical surroundings).

1.2 Background Of the Study:
The river is one of the most important elements of nature; rivers are pro-genitors of eco-systems, and each river gives rise to a unique eco-system in its basin (BAPA, 2004).
Dhaka the capital city of Bangladesh, was established on the left bank of the river Buriganga in 1610 and is surrounded by a peripheral river system comprising Buriganga, Balu, Turag, Tongi Khal and Lakhya. A number of water channels (locally known as khals) crossed through and around the city in the past and were of hydrographic importance linking the peripheral rivers mainly with Buriganga. The majority of these khals do not exist any more as they have been filled in due to unplanned development and environment degradation. | The river receives a large quantity of waste (both solid waste and waste water), surface runoff, untreated industrial effluents and treated sewage effluents directly or indirectly from the city. These wastes contaminate the river water affecting its aquatic life. Analysis of long term data from some of the major rivers in Bangladesh shows that Buriganga is more polluted than any other river in the country (DOE, 1993).

Water is an important element for all living beings on this planet. It is needed not only for drinking, for growing food, for washing, but it is also important for many of the pleasant recreational aspects of life (Reeve, 2002). Water is one of the prime necessities of life. We can hardly live for a few days without water (Kudesia, 1990). It has become an essential commodity for the development of industries and agriculture (Kudesia, 1990). All life forms of earth depend upon water. Each human being needs to consume several liters of water daily to sustain his or her life (Baird, 1999). No life can exist without water since water is as essential for life as air is. Water is absolutely essential not only for survival of human beings, but also for animals, plants and all other living things (Raj, 1997).

Water pollution may be defined as natural or induced change in the quality of water whereby its normal function and natural properties are affected. Water pollution ot-river pollution-is now recognized as a world problem. In the 21st century pollution deterioration is one of the most significant water resources issues around the world .Now-a day it is a growing concern in water resource management to maintain good water quality. At present 20 percent of the world population do not have access to safe water (The Daily Star, 2009). The problem has been intensified by the technological and industrial revolution of this century. Water pollution comes from different sources. Many causes of pollution especially pollution may be identified as- sedimentation at the upstream , encroachment, disposal of solid wastes, 'M sewerage and industrial wastes, over population, land grabbing of the river etc Generally water contains iron, calcium, magnesium, manganese, silica, fluride, nitrate, phosphates, sulphates and chlorides (Kudesia, 1990). When the quantity of these parts increase then they affect the body system and cause destruction of health (Kudesia, 1990). When man and other higher animals began their life on this earth, there was absolutely no § sign of pollution. There was perfect balance in various natural processes. The air and water was pure and soil was fertile. The problem of pollution arose with the very civilization of man.

River pollution can also causes serious threats to public health, agricultural and industrial production (World Bank, 2003). Most places of the Hazaribag is now gone, having fallen to ever insatiable land grabbers and industries dumping untreated Hazaribag is a shining example of water pollution, which is being polluted mainly by 86 industries of Postogola and Fatullah and 151 tanneries of Hazribag of the 270 tanneries in the whole country 90 percent are located in Hazanbag, a densely populated residential areas of Dhaka (World Bank, 1993).However, by 1997 the number reached to 249(Karim,1997). It has been reported that Hazanbag tanneries those are export oriented cluster industries produce about 20,000,cubic meters of toxic waste leaden with chromium and at least 30 other toxins every day(World Bank, 1 993).

Besides these, due to over population, there are many slums built near foreshore of this area. The slum inhabitants are using hanging latrines, take bath, wash their cloths & dishes with soap and detergent mixed with water and pollute it. Further land grabbing by different political people along and beyond the river bank, reduce drastically the channel area which in turn reduce the flow of water. There are small ship-yards, dying units and small industries § near these areas that discharge untreated washing and clinical wastes, use batteries, plastic bottles and containers and other discarded plastic materials and burnt oil into the river. They also dump useless solid wastes of crushed materials into the river and pollute it. Rapid urban expansion and industrialization in Dhaka city are inevitable and should not be discouraged considering the need for fast development of the country. However this development will in turn, result in more degradation of Buriganga water quality. So, to save our country and Dhaka city an appropriate management practice need to be develop and implemented in order to keep resultant degradation of water quality within tolerable limit.

1.3 Objective of the study:
The water of Hazaribag is being polluted through many ways. Polluted water contains many kinds of chemicals and other harmful products spoil the soil, plants and aquatic life and through various sources they enter into man's body causing number of disorders in various parts and even cancer (Kudsia, 1990). To meet up the necessary requirements several specific objectives had been taken.

The main objective of the present study is to identify the causes & consequences pollution at different places Hazaribag. However the specific objectives of thee studies are on:
· To identify the situation of water pollution at different points of Hazaribag.
· To assess the impact of water pollution on human health and aquatic animal at Hazaribagh.
· To identify the main causes of water pollution.

1.4 Study approaches:
The study has been carried out following the well defined and systematic stepwise approaches .These are: (i) literature review, (ii) data collection and processing, (iii) data analysis, and (iv) report writing.